Unlike water, crude is not a single chemical compound. When a mixture of alkanes from the gas oil fraction c 12 and higher is heated at very high temperatures. This text examines the thermal and catalytic processes involved in the refining of petroleum including visbreaking, coking, pyrolysis, catalytic cracking, oligomerization, alkylation, hydrofining, hydroisomerization, hydrocracking, and catalytic reforming. Modeling of processes and reactors for upgrading of heavy petroleum gives an uptodate treatment of modeling of reactors employed in the main processes for heavy petroleum upgrading. Catalytic naphtha reforming, revised and expanded chemical industries. Common approaches for modeling of catalytic reactors for steadystate and dynamic simulations are also described and.
The role of the catalytic reforming process in meeting the future demand of high octane lead free gasoline is discussed. The book is as uptcdate as jet fuels and reforming processes. It is one of the most important processes in oil refineries during the conversion crude oil into various petroleum. Due to the chemistry of oil refining, the higher the ch ratio of a crude oil, the more intense and costly the refinery processing required to prod uce given volumes of gasoline and distillate fuels. Handbook of petroleum refining processes, fourth edition features chapter contributions from experts at some of the worlds leading petroleum companies, including. Catalytic reforming is one of the most important processes to produce high grade motor gasolines.
Chemistry, refining, fuels and petrochemicals petroleum. This authoritative resource will prove essential for anyone who needs. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a creative commons attributionnoncommercialsharealike 4. The book has a surprising amount of background on the oil industry both upstream and downstream. Petroleum refining processes are the chemical engineering processes and other facilities used in petroleum refineries also referred to as oil refineries to transform crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas lpg, gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils refineries are very large industrial complexes that involve many different processing units. Gain a complete understanding of the latest petroleum refining process techniques. Chemistry before describing the reaction chemistry of the catalytic reforming process as used in petroleum refineries, the typical. Speight,2476 overland road, laramie, wy 820704808, usa 1.
Apr 18, 2003 hydrocarbon chemistry begins by discussing the general aspects of hydrocarbons, the separation of hydrocarbons from natural sources, and the synthesis from c1 precursors with recent developments for possible future applications. Jan 12, 2017 the process of reforming was developed to raise both the quality and volume of gasoline produced by refiners. A petroleum refinery includes many unit operations and unit processes. Thermal reforming alters the properties of lowgrade naphthas by converting the molecules into those of higher octane number by exposing the materials. Catalytic reforming advances in chemistry acs publications. Process simulation of reformer by equilibrium reactions. Diminishing petroleum supplies, regulatory problems, and environmental concerns constantly challenge chemists to rethink and redesign the industrial applications of hydrocarbons. Oyekan is president and ceo of prafis energy solutions. Major processes of the petrochemical industry, such as cracking, reforming, isomerization, and alkylation. The process is frequently applied to lowquality gasoline stocks to improve their combustion characteristics. Based on the authors decades of years of experience in oil refining, catalytic naphtha reforming process conveys essential information on key concepts, operations, and practices of catalytic naphtha reforming technologies and associated oil refining processes. Reforming takes straight chain hydrocarbons in the c 6 to c 8 range from the gasoline or naphtha fractions and rearranges them into compounds.
Isomerization and reforming processes are applied to rearrange the structure of petroleum molecules to produce highervalue molecules of a similar molecular size. The text introduces the basics of dealing with the thermodynamics and physical property predictions of hydrocarbon components in the. The results showed that competitive adsorption of heavy aromatic byproducts hinders both heptane. By catalytic reforming the octane number of these gasoline components is increased from 4060 ron to 95100 ron. Fundamentals of petroleum refining 1st edition elsevier. Handbook of petroleum refining processes, fourth edition. Highoctane gasoline production from catalytic naphtha reforming. Handbook of industrial hydrocarbon processes sciencedirect. However, formatting rules can vary widely between applications and fields of interest or study. The text also provides a detailed introduction to refinery engineering topics, ranging from the basic. Catalytic reforming catalytic reforming is a chemical process used in petroleum refineries to convert naphthas, typically having low octane ratings, into highoctane liquid products called reformateswhich are components of highoctane gasoline also known as petrol. Anyone in terested in ptroleum processing or refinery engineering will want this book. Using a catalyst again, after a series of reforming processes, substances are.
This courseware module is part of penn states college of earth and mineral sciences oer initiative. The text also provides a detailed introduction to refinery engineering topics, ranging from the basic principles and unit operations to overall refinery economics. Springer handbook of petroleum technology springer handbooks. Meyers is the inventor or coinventor of a number of broadly used engineering processes, and has managed projects in nearly every facet of the petroleum refining industry. At its core is a complete overview of the processes that make up a modern refinery, plus a brief history of the development of processes. The liquid products of this process are highly olefinic, aromatic, and have high sulfur content. Soni was the corporate process technologist for marathon petroleum company, bpamoco and sunoco separately with responsibilities for naphtha processing, oil refining processes and technology support for over a span of 20 years.
Therefore, over the years chemical and petroleum refining engineers have developed special methods or. Catalytic naphtha reforming process and millions of other books are available for amazon. Chemistry of petrochemical processes sami matar, lewis. The initial process, thermal reforming, was developed in the late 1920s. Petroleum refining processes are the chemical engineering processes and other facilities used in petroleum refineries also referred to as oil refineries to transform crude oil into useful products such as liquefied petroleum gas lpg, gasoline or petrol, kerosene, jet fuel, diesel oil and fuel oils. Download pdf petroleumrefineryprocesseconomics free. Jarullah catalytic reforming catalytic reforming is the process of transforming c7 c10 hydrocarbons with low octane numbers to aromatics and isoparaffins which have high octane numbers. Catalytic naphtha reforming process oyekan, soni o on. Reforming process, also known as catalytic reforming is a chemical process that breaks down the molecules of low octane rating naphtha into high octane gasoline blending components. Catalytic naphtha reforming process is a valuable reference book to engineers and operators.
Course book about petroleum chemistry ii 3 slideshare. A petroleum refining study starts with describing its feedstock, the crude oil and the range of products that are produced by the various processes. This has a capacity oj 6,000 burrels per day platinum metals rev. Chemistry, refining, fuels and petrochemicals petroleum products 161. The book is mainly directed to undergraduate and graduate students in chemical and petroleum engineering, chemistry and chemical technology.
The other links add value to petroleum mainly by moving and storing it e. Petroleum refining processes download ebook pdf, epub. Catalytic reforming is a process whereby light petroleum distillates naphthas are contacted with a platinumcontaining catalyst at elevated temperatures and hydrogen pressures ranging from 345 to 3,450 kpa 50500 psig for the purpose of raising the octane number of the hydrocarbon feed stream. The modern crude oil refinery is designed to convert. This chapter explores thermal cracking and coking in the process of petroleum refining. Petroleum refining petroleum refining naphtha reforming.
Fundamentals of petroleum refining presents the fundamentals of thermodynamics and kinetics, and it explains the scientific background essential for understanding refinery operations. Catalytic reforming is the process of transforming c7c10 hydrocarbons with low octane numbers to. Basically, the process rearranges or restructures thehydrocarbon molecules in the naphtha feedstocks as well as breaking. For a time, nonplatinum catalyst reforming processes enjoyed popularity because of the the platforming unit at the kent refinery of the british petroleum company ltd. Organized around three basic petrochemical processes cracking, catalytic reforming, and steam reforming this text presents a picture of the relationship between the petrochemical industry and the. Petroleum is used mostly, by volume, for producing fuel oiland petrol, both important primary energy sources.
Inclusion of modern petroleum refining and its economic evaluation makes this book attractive to anyone, either in academics or in industry, whose work actively involves with catalytic reforming. Thermal and catalytic processes in petroleum refining book. Chemistry is a physical science and is used for the investigation of atoms, molecules, crystals, and other assemblages of matter, whether in isolation or combination, which incorporates the concepts of energy and entropy in relation to the spontaneity or initiation of chemical reactions or chemical processes. Most reforming catalysts contain platinum as the active metal supported on alumina, and some may contain additional metals such as rhenium and tin in bi or trimetallic catalyst formulations. An increase in the severity of reforming is needed to produce aromaticrich fractions with octane numbers as high as 110. A catalytic reforming version developed by axens, a subsidiary of institut francais du petrole ifp, designed for continuous catalyst regeneration. Chemistry, refining, fuels and petrochemicals petroleum products 161 james g. Speight encyclopedia of life support systems eolss refinery gas c1 c4 161 1 259 31 liquefied petroleum gas c3 c4 42 1 44 31 naphtha c5 c17 36 302 97 575 gasoline c4 c12 1 216 31 421. It analyzes the thermodynamics, reaction mechanisms, and kinetics of each process, as well as. A huge percentage of a refinery can be changed, literally, from year to year, to account for the type of crude being refined or to integrate new equipment or processes. Chemistry before describing the reaction chemistry of the catalytic reforming process as used in petroleum refineries, the typical naphthas used as catalytic reforming feedstocks will be discussed. Kobe university of tezas amtin chemistry and uses of pesticides e. Mar 29, 2011 about this book modeling and simulation of catalytic reactors for petroleum refining deals with fundamental descriptions of the main conversion processes employed in the petroleum refining industry. Chemistry, refining, fuels and petrochemicals basics.
Catalytic naphtha reforming process 1st edition soni o. Thermal and catalytic processes in petroleum refining. Also described in detail are design techniques, operations, and, in the case of catalytic units, the chemistry of the reaction routes. Important processes in the petroleum industry, therefore, are concerned with converting hydrocarbons from other fractions into gasoline. Petroleum refining design and applications handbook wiley. It is one of the most important processes in oil refineries during the conversion crude oil into various petroleum products. Offers detailed description of process chemistry and thermodynamics and product byproduct specifications of plants contributors are drawn from the largest petroleum producers in the world, including chevron, mobil, shell, exxon, uop, and texaco covers the very latest technologies in the field of petroleum refining processes completely. This page looks at the manufacture of arenes such as benzene and methylbenzene toluene by the catalytic reforming of fractions from petroleum crude oil. Handbook of petroleum processing is an indispensable desk reference for chemist and engineers and also an essential part of the libraries of universities with a chemical engineering faculty and oil refineries and engineering firms performing support functions or construction. Semih eser, professor of energy and geoenvironmental engineering, college of earth and mineral sciences, penn state. Thermal reforming employed temperatures of 510565 c 9501,050 f at moderate pressuresabout 40 bars 4 mpa, or 600 psito obtain gasolines petrols with.
Before describing the reaction chemistry of the catalytic reforming process as used in petroleum refineries, the typical naphthas used as catalytic reforming feedstocks will be discussed. Typical naphtha feedstocks a petroleum refinery includes many unit processes and unit operations. Within its pages, you will get complete details on the excavation and. This site is like a library, use search box in the widget to get ebook that you want. The book includes fundamental aspects such as thermodynamics, reaction kinetics, chemistry, and process variables. Thermal cracking is the cracking of heavy residues under severe thermal conditions. A brief overview of petroleum products and chemical process will also be included. The book covers important topics, such as clean fuels, gasification, biofuels, and. Chemical institute of canada see all technical divisions. Reforming, in chemistry, processing technique by which the molecular structure of a hydrocarbon is rearranged to alter its properties. Modeling and simulation of catalytic reactors for petroleum. Petroleum refinery process modeling download ebook pdf. The most widespread process for rearranging hydrocarbon molecules is naphtha reforming.
The most valuable byproduct from catalytic reforming is hydrogen to satisfy the increasing demand for hydrogen in hydrotreating and hydrocracking processes. The process of reforming was developed to raise both the quality and volume of gasoline produced by refiners. Thermal and catalytic processes in petroleum refining serge. Petroleum chemistry neftekhimiya, founded in 1961, offers original papers on. Each successive chapter deals with a specific type of hydrocarbon transformation. Petroleum refining and the prod uction of ulsg and ulsd october 24, 2011 page 2 2. This book is the most uptodate and comprehensive coverage of the most significant and recent changes to petroleum refining, presenting the stateoftheart to the engineer. He is a globally renowned expert in oil, gas and oil refining.
Petroleum refining at a glance petroleum refining is a unique and critical link in the petroleum supply chain, from the wellhead to the pump. Feedstocks are mainly gasoline and naphtha streams from the crude oil distillation boiling in the range of 212 f to 350 f. Catalytic naphtha reforming process by soni o oyekan books. Meyers was manager of chemical process technology at trw and is now president of ramtech limited. Feb 26, 2003 this text examines the thermal and catalytic processes involved in the refining of petroleum including visbreaking, coking, pyrolysis, catalytic cracking, oligomerization, alkylation, hydrofining, hydroisomerization, hydrocracking, and catalytic reforming. Crude oil comes from different parts of the world and has different physical and chemical characteristics. Chemistry, refining, fuels and petrochemicals eolss. The book details the chemistry of naphtha reforming, the preparation and characterization of catalysts, and the very latest commercial technologies and with more than 300 tables and figures, it addresses the development of new catalysts and revamp process improvements propelled by. Jones is a retired chemical engineer having spent 10 years in bps refinery, 4 years in bp research and development, 2 years in essos refinery development dept, 18 years in process engineering with fluor corporation final position general manageroperations, 8 years as private engineering consultant in sa.
Petrochemistry is an area of chemistry that studies the transformation of petroleum and natural gas into useful products and raw materials for chemical products the economic sector, which is based on mineral oils and natural gases, is of considerable importance for the national and global economies. Click download or read online button to get petroleum refining processes book now. For more information of e book and print volumes order, please click here. Modeling and simulation of catalytic reactors for petroleum refining deals with fundamental descriptions of the main conversion processes employed in the petroleum refining industry. Useful as a textbook, this is also an excellent, handy goto reference for the veteran engineer, a volume no chemical or process engineering library should be. The first edition of this book was published as catalytic naphtha reforming. Chemistry, refining, fuels and petrochemicals petroleum products james g.1483 753 99 256 1160 578 1344 871 1356 125 547 1516 99 814 1442 714 144 562 1267 1553 636 1383 1065 485 1185 525 1452 382 522